Algeria is a country at the Mediterranean coast in northern Africa. The land has a total area of 2,381,740 km² (919,594 mi²) and a total coastline of 998 km (620.1 mi). This land area is approximately 342% of the area of Texas. Algeria is thus the largest country in Africa and the tenth largest country in the world. A considerable share of the inhabitants (74%) belongs to the urban population.
Electricity in Western Sahara is mainly produced from fossil thermals. Biomass still dominated the share of total final consumption at 74% followed by oil at 26%.
More than half of the domestic energy needs are met by combustible renewable resources and waste, mainly biomass. Biomass is the most common energy source, providing up to 56% of overall energy requirements, including: fuel wood and charcoal for households, energy for small restaurants, bakeries, and arts and crafts centers, agricultural and forest residues for steam and/or electricity in some agro-business companies and sawmills. The country is a net exporter of petroleum products, and an exporter of crude oil. AFREC’s 2020 statistics shows that Crude oil production was 1,561 ktoe, and the country imported 3,273 ktoe of crude oil and 385 ktoe petroleum products.. Total primary energy supply in 2018 was 9,783ktoe of which Biomass: The anaerobic generation of biogas was experimented with in several pilot projects, but was not implemented in regular operation up to now.
Currently, some private investors are applying for the authorization to produce electricity from household wastes, especially in Abidjan. The main sources of supply for fuel wood are natural forests, savannah woodlands and tree and bush savannahs, productive farms and tree plantations. In addition, the production of bioethanol has been investigated in the country, using feedstocks such as sugarcane, maize and sweet sorghum.
São Tomé and Príncipe
AFREC’s energy balance 2020 show that thetotal primary energy supply was 170 ktoe. Biomass (firewood and charcoal) is used heavily for cooking purposes. There is no oil refinery. As a result, all petroleum products including jet fuel, gasoline and kerosene have to be imported. The fuel comes mostly from an Angolan supplier that has an effective monopoly. There are no indigenous sources of oil, coal, natural gas or hydropower. The share of electricity consumption was households 77%, commerce and public sector 23%.
The main energy sources for electricity generation in Rwanda are fossil thermal and hydropower. AFREC’s energy balance 2020 show that biomass in Rwanda contributed to 92% of its total final consumption. Most of this biomass was consumed in the household sector at 85% followed by commerce and public service sector at 15%. Most of the electricity generated in Rwanda was used in the household sector at 59%, industry sector at 33% and commerce and public sector at 8%. Charcoal is the source most used in urban areas and is among the causes of environmental degradation. Diesel remains the primary fuel for self-generation in rural areas, and for emergency supply in urban areas. Kerosene is the main fuel used for lighting. Diesel fuel is imported and transported by truck from the Tanzanian port of Dar es Salaam.
Biomass energy accounts for the majority of the total energy consumed by households. The widespread and inefficient use of traditional biomass (firewood, charcoal) has been proven to cause overexploitation of forest stocks in certain zones, particularly around high concentration urban areas such as Maputo and Beira, environmental degradation, problems to end-users (indoor air pollution) and high CO2 emissions. AFREC’s energy balance 2020 show that, the country’s fuel shares of total final consumption mix consists of oil products 40%, biomass (wood, charcoal, and animal waste) 36%, natural gas 4% and electricity at 20%.
Biomass energy in Mauritius consists mainly of bagasse, wood and charcoal. Bagasse is the most plentiful primary energy resource and is almost entirely used by the sugar industry to meet all their energy requirements in terms of heat and cogeneration of electricity. Biomass energy in Mauritius consists mainly of bagasse, wood and charcoal. Bagasse is the most plentiful primary energy resource and is almost entirely used by the sugar industry to meet all their energy requirements in terms of heat and cogeneration of electricity.
AFREC’s energy balance 2020 show that Malawi’s energy balance is dominated by biomass (firewood, charcoal, agricultural and industrial wastes), which accounts for large percentage of the total primary energy supply (6,411 ktoe). Demand for wood fuel exceeds the available sustainable supply and the deficit is increasing every year. Malawi has no indigenous sources of oil or natural gas. Diminishing standing stock is leading into gradual reduction of biomass that can be harvested. Household sector consumes about 94% of biomass energy and the rest is distributed among other sectors.
The exploitation of forest resources provides wood and by-products that meet most households' energy needs. In the rural villages, firewood and charcoal are still being used as a fuel source, and this traditional fuel impacts the forest and the health of residents. Madagascar is a net oil importer. More than half of the electricity produced in Madagascar is derived from imported fuel. About 76% of the total final consumption of energy is utilize biofuels and waste. According to AFREC’s energy balance 2020 the total primary energy supply in 2018 was 8040ktoe. Biomass in the south has been identified as of a high potential for energy production. Sugar production is high, and bagasse co-generation is common.
Gabon is the county in Central Africa with the largest share of electrification rate. As per AFREC 2019 energy efficiency indicator for residential sector, more than 90% of the population of Gabon has access to electricity. However, most of Gabon's rural population relies on traditional biomass and waste (typically consisting of wood, charcoal, manure, and crop residues) to meet household cooking and heating needs. The country is a net exporter of crude oil and petroleum products ranking seventh in Africa.
AFREC 2020 energy balance shows that Gabon produced 9,008 ktoe of crude oil and exported about 90% of this production. Total primary energy supply in 2018 was 6,220 ktoe. The fuel share of TFC in Gabon are biomass 84%, oil and petroleum products 12%, and electricity 4%. Gabon is a heavily-forested country, and biomass still constitutes the majority of the Total primary energy supply of the country. The government of Gabon is part of the International Centre for Carbon Sequestration and Biomass Energy, a platform which provides information on the R&D, financial and economic aspects, and best practices involved in biomass energy production.
Ethiopia’s energy sector is highly dependent on biomass, such as firewood, charcoal, crop residues and animal dung. The bulk of the national energy consumption is met from biomass sources. It is estimated that biomass energy accounted for 85% of total national energy consumption in 2018The growing demand for biomass energy together with increased demand for agricultural output has resulted in an increased pressure on available resources. AFREC 2020 energy balance shows a total primary energy supply of 39165 ktoe. About 82% of the biomass consumed in Ethiopia is used in the household sector and is then followed by the commerce and public sector at 18%. Electricity that is mostly generated from hydro-electricity sources is mostly used in the industrial and residential sectors at 38% and 37% respectively.
Most of the country's electricity generated in Eritrea comes from oil that is imported into the country. The use of biomass for cooking, using generally inefficient appliances such as the mogogo, has led to unsustainable energy supplies, especially the traditional biomass, and is contributing to carbon emissions. Deforestation is resulting from overuse of biomass for fuel. Without alternatives, the pressure on Eritrea’s limited forest resources would increase. The main source of energy for lighting is kerosene, which is burnt through wick lamps. There are no indigenous sources of oil, natural gas, coal and hydropower. Eritrea is facing acute shortages of modern energy services, especially in rural areas, and the country is generally characterized by low energy consumption levels.
In order to facilitate the economic development of Eritrea, further development of the electricity sector is necessary. The over-reliance on imported fossil fuels does not only divert scarce financial resources from other socio-developmental areas, but further contributes to environmental emissions and energy related health problems.
AFREC 2020 energy balance 2020 shows a total primary energy supply of 838.67ktoe of which biomass represented 64% while petroleum products represented 31%. Biomass: There are many indications of potential for modern biomass energy usage in certain locations in Eritrea: The Alighider Farm Estate has the potential to supply raw materials (cotton and sorghum stalks, elephant grass, banana leaves etc.) for briquette production for at least 15 plants, each with a capacity of 4000 tons per year. Briquettes are a replacement for fuelwood and charcoal. Agricultural waste could generate electricity thermally, Biogas plants could be installed in the Elabered Agro-industry, and other smaller dairy farms, Biogas could be generated from cactus trees, Energy recovery from municipal solid and liquid wastes is possible, Energy crops, such as Salicornia (being developed by SeaWater Farms, a biofuels company), could generate electricity for local uses or for the central grid.
Equatorial Guinea is the ninth-largest producer of crude oil in Africa, after Ghana in 2018. Foreign investment, primarily by U.S. companies, have poured into the country's oil sector in recent years. The Zafiro field is Equatorial Guinea's largest oil producer, with output rising from 7,000 bbl/d in 1996 to approximately 280,000 bbl/d by 2004. Ceiba, Equatorial Guinea's second major producing oil field is estimated to contain 300 million barrels of oil. Reserves at Alba (Equatorial Guinea's third significant field) are estimated at almost 1 billion boe. Natural gas reserves are located offshore, near Bioko Island, in the Alba and Zafiro fields. Natural gas and condensate production expanded rapidly in the 5-years following investments in the Alba gas field. The field contains 1.3 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of proven reserves, with probable reserves estimated 4.4 Tcf.
AFREC 2020 energy balance shows that the total primary energy supply was 2,286 ktoe. Biomass: With an estimated biomass potential of 400 tonnes/ha or more, Equatorial Guinea has extensive biomass coverage. Potential for bioenergy in conjunction with carbon capture and storage has been recognized.
Democratic Republic of Congo
The Democratic Republic of Congo is well endowed with forest area and carbon stocks in forest biomass represent the second largest in the tropical world. Crude Oil production is about 1,074 ktoe as mentioned in the AFREC’s 2020 energy balance. There is no oil refinery in the country and as a result, all refined products including jet fuel and gasoline have to be imported. The total primary energy supply in 2018 was 30,212ktoe .The country produces a modest amount of coal. Hydropower resources are abundant and the main sources of hydroelectricity are the 2 Inga dams, 140 miles south-west of Kinshasa. Despite having the potential to generate an estimated 40,000-45,000 MW per year just in hydroelectric power. The country’s physical area would require thousands of kilometers of electricity lines to reach users, so the electrification rate is just slightly below 20%.
Wood fuel remains a dominant fuel, especially in rural areas. However, as biomass/wood energy is currently used and is rising swiftly, the rate of deforestation is growing in an unsustainable fashion, and soon the forests of Congo will not be able to support the demand. The variation in the seasons and climate change could also have consequences on the production of electric energy. The latest 2018 estimates indicates that more than 70% of the Congo's primary energy consumption was from traditional biomass and waste (typically consisting of wood, charcoal, manure, and crop residues). This high share represents the use of biomass and waste to meet off-grid heating and cooking needs, mainly in rural areas. In 2018, the total primary energy supply in the country is 2817ktoe. It mainly relies on fossil fuels to provide energy, although there is a high proportion of unexploited hydroelectric energy. The energy sector remains dominated by oil activity.
As estimated by the Oil and Gas Journal (OGJ), Congo contained 3.2 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of proven natural gas reserves as of January 2006. These reserve deposits constitute the fourth largest found in sub-Saharan Africa, behind Nigeria, Mozambique and Cameroon. Significant biomass energy potential exists in the country, particularly in the form of the production of palm oil for biodiesel. Some 12 million acres of land have been identified as having the potential to support some form of woody biomass for energy use.
In Chad, only less than 10% of the population has access to electricity. This goes hand-in-hand with low rates of access to basic services such as drinking water, basic sanitation and paved roads. Meanwhile, crude oil has become the country’s primary source of export earnings.
The exorbitant cost and scarcity of electricity poses a major obstacle to Chad’s economic development. Total primary energy supply in 2018 was 4,375 ktoe. The energy problem is central to environmental issues. Wood and charcoal provide 83% of the energy consumed in Chad, and LPG consumption is on the rise. However, only a small percentage of the population uses this type of energy. There is currently oil refining activity in Chad and has produced in 2018 683 ktoe.
The bulk of consumption is met through biomass. Biomass: Agricultural residues are abundant in the region and very valuable for energy production. As a sugar producing country, Chad has large quantities of bagasse available for energy production from co-generation as a surplus from the internal sugar mills needs. Biomass is the primary energy source for the majority of the country's rural population. AFREC’s 2020 energy balance shows that the total final consumption (TFC) is dominated by biofuel & waste and represent 83% followed by oil product and electricity respectively 16% and 1%.
Cameroon’s electrification rate is above 60% while consumption remains low. Although Cameroon is an oil producing country, the proportion of imported petroleum products in national consumption increased considerably between 1990 and 2018, with imports rising beyond the 56% mark in 2000, before dropping again in 2003. Cameroon's energy balance shows a clear predominance of renewable energy (RE) sources particularly biomass. Despite the clear progress made with commercial forms of energy between 1990 and 2002, biomass is still the predominating fuel source (69% in 2018), with cooking and other residential uses accounting for 96%. The total primary energy supply in 2018 was 10,924 ktoe. Cameroon also has the third largest biomass potential in sub-Saharan Africa. The unsustainable use of this resource has led to significant deforestation throughout the country. Primary uses for biomass in the country include heating and light for the majority of the rural population. Utilization of palm oil for biodiesel is also a viable prospect for the country.
AFREC’s energy balance 2020 show that , the total primary energy supply (TPES) was 208 ktoe and was consumed as follows: 65% for oil products, 34% for electricity, 1% for biofuels and waste. This is primarily due to the dependence on petroleum products for the vast majority of energy needs, and indicates the possible need for demand-side management measures. Biomass: Few studies have been conducted into the potential for biomass in Seychelles, although preliminary trials were conducted through the Biomass Technology Group, with funding from the World Bank, for gazifiers in rural communities as a means of electrification, with promising results.
Angola ranked in the second placed of crude oil producers and also second in the crude oil exporting countries in Africa according to the AFREC 2020 statistics. In 2018, Angola produced up to 69,366ktoe of crude oil and exported up to 93.5% of its production. This also made it in the top 5 natural gas producers in Africa with a record of up to 4,783 ktoe of natural gas produced and 85.5% of this production was exported in the same year.Total primary energy supply in 2018 was 10953 ktoe. Electricity generation has been rising steadily from 2000 to 2018 with the main sources of electricity generation arising from hydro and fossil thermal at 79% and 21% respectively.
Angola is set to become the largest producer of crude oil in Southern Africa, yet has also set the foundation for the sustainable development of renewables, through investments and supportive measures. Angola has particularly strong hydropower generation potential that remains underutilized.
The main source of energy for residential use is traditional biomass (firewood and charcoal). Some 85% of Angolans rely on biomass for most of their energy needs. Wood fuel is mostly used in rural regions, while charcoal is preferred in peri-urban areas due to its higher heating value and lower transport weight. Natural forest is the most significant biomass resource in the country.
Somalia has the one of the lowest electrification rates in Africa. It has long relied fossil thermal to generate all of its electricity in 2018 (AFREC’s energy balance 2020). 95% of energy consumed is from biofuels and waste followed by oil products at 4% and electricity at 1%. Rural and urban energy needs are primarily wood and charcoal based, though there is an increasing use of oil-based energy in urban areas. With a growth in urbanization, combined with the return of the Somali Diaspora, energy demands will increase. The country relies heavily on imported petroleum for production of electricity. Total primary energy supply in 2018 was 2,998 ktoe.
AFREC’s energy balance 2020 show that the total primary energy supply was 20,243 ktoe. The biomass energy resource, which comprises fuel-wood and charcoal from natural forests and plantations, accounts for over 78% of total energy consumption, predominantly due to traditional use in the residential sector. About 94% of the biomass was used in the household sector. Natural gas, hydropower and coal are the major source of commercial energy in the country. Hydropower is considerably a major source of electricity generation. Tanzania is a net importer of petroleum products (3,078 ktoe according to AFREC’s energy balance 2020), which make up the entirety of the country's energy source imports.
AFREC’s energy balance 2020 show that the total primary energy supply was 14,886 ktoe. Low-grade forms of energy, especially traditional biomass fuels, account for more than 86% of total energy consumption. Most of the biomass was mostly consumed in the household sector at 71% followed by industry at 20% and commerce and public sector at 9%.Electricity generated was mainly used in the industry sector at 66%, households at 22% and commerce and public sector at 12%.
Other renewable sources of energy also contribute to the national energy balance. Electricity is mostly generated from hydropower and a significant amount is also generated from fossil thermal and biofuels and waste. Uganda imports all its petroleum products (1,942 ktoe), as yet, no production recorded yet in the country; although some local production is expected to begin soon. Imports come primarily through Kenya and Tanzania.
Traditional biomass fuels, petroleum products and electricity have a significant share in the country’s energy mix. AFREC 2020 energy balanceshows that the total primary energy supply in 2018 was 457ktoe. Djibouti has no indigenous sources of oil, natural gas, hydropower or coal. There is no oil refinery in the country, and as a result, all refined petroleum products including gasoline, jet fuel and kerosene are imported. About 70% of the population lives in the capital of Djibouti-Ville, and another 13% in secondary towns, kerosene is in high demand for household needs such as cooking, but the volatility in petroleum products prices makes it very expensive. Biomass: With the majority of the country being semi-desert, the potential for large-scale power production from biomass is expected to be of limited feasibility. However, no formal assessment has yet been made into the country's biomass potential.
Comoros total primary energy supply in 2018 was 259.2 ktoe. In addition, there are two main energy sources in the country: (a) Plant and ligneous biomass, approximately 95% of national demand, are used for households. Other energy sources (electricity, butane gas) have a negligible share (2%). There is no oil refinery in the country, and as a result, all petroleum products including gasoline, jet fuel and kerosene have to be imported, mainly from the Emirates National Oil Company, UAE. Biomass: Oilseed plants such as coconut, sesame, peanut and Jatropha curcas (Barbados nut tree) grow in the Comoros.
No in-depth studies have been conducted on these oilseeds, except dried coconuts, which are transformed into oil for local consumption. Studies could examine the use of Jatropha oil instead of diesel to power motors for vanilla preparation, and aromatic plant distillation and to replace kerosene in lighting. AFREC’s 2020 energy balance shows that the total final consumption (TFC) in the country is dominated by biofuel & waste and represent 56% followed by oil product and electricity respectively 42% and 2%.
Burundi has no indigenous sources of oil, natural gas or coal. There are no oil refining operations in the country. All refined oil products are imported from Kenya and Tanzania. Over 90% of Burundi's energy requirements are met by the burning of wood, charcoal, or peat. Wood consumed mainly for cooking is and will be for a long time the main source of energy for rural households as well as in urban areas.
The great majority of the population lives in rural areas and consumes primarily wood for fuel. AFREC 2020 statistics shows a total primary energy supply of 2,805 ktoe with 97% Biomass and Petroleum: 3%. Fuel-wood accounts for the vast majority of Burundi's energy consumption. However, potential wood consumption in the country is forecast to require production of 180,000 hectares, which surpasses the current forest coverage of 174,000 hectares, suggesting the need for reduction of consumption and re-forestation programs.
British Indian Ocean Territory
The total primary energy supply was 3,295 ktoe according to AFREC’s energy balance 2020. In Togo, biomass energy comprises charcoal, wood and agricultural waste. Traditional biomass is the most prominent source of energy for cooking and heating purposes in Togo. About 87% of all biomass is used in the households (mainly in rural areas) utilize wood energy. Charcoal is the most prominent combustible of urban households.
Electricity is mainly produced from fossil thermal and hydropower. Other sources include biofuels and waste and solar/wind. The largest share of total final consumption was dominated by biofuels and waste at 72%. This was followed by oil at 23% and electricity at 5%. Most of the biofuels are used in the household sector at 87% and the rest is mostly used in the commerce and public sector.
AFREC’s energy balance 2020 show that the total primary energy supply in Sierra Leone was 3134.1 ktoe. Traditional biomass accounts for an estimated 85% of total energy used. Modern energy services, electricity, petroleum products, including LPG, and non-biomass renewable, represent only a small percentage of energy used. Overall, Sierra Leone imports more energy than it outputs and consumes more energy than it produces. There are no indigenous sources of coal or natural gas. There is no oil refinery in Sierra Leone. All petroleum products are currently imported.
Senegal relies heavily on fossil thermals to generate its electricity which accounts to more than 90%. Other sources of electricity generation include hydropower and solar/wind which are renewable sources. Oil contributes the largest share of fuels consumed in the country at up to 42% according to AFREC’s statistics 2018. This is then followed by biofuels and waste at 42%, electricity at 14% and coal at 4%. Most of the biomass is used in the household sector at 80%. The share of electricity consumption was other (non-specified) sector 29%, commerce and public sector 27%, household sector 21%, Industry sector 21% and finally agriculture/forestry at 2%.
Total fossil fuel supply stands at 3442 ktoe in 2018. The overall oil consumption has previously been covered by imports, thus leading to high import dependency on fossil fuels. Senegal produces natural and all this gas is sued for electricity generation. The country has the refinery and produces 1003 ktoe this year.
The energy sector is dominated by the high consumption of the residential sector, which is mainly based on wood resources (wood and biomass remnants). Deforestation has long been a problem for Niger, due to the dominant use of traditional biomass resources by the majority of the population. Nearly all households (86% according to AFREC’s energy balance 2020) of wood/charcoal used as the main cooking fuel. This situation contributes to the increasing deforestation. Inadequate infrastructure could generate high congestion losses, leading to low productivity.
The limited infrastructure development in the energy sector has made it difficult to satisfy an increasing potential demand. The dependence on traditional biomass resources has also lead to gender inequality in education and employment, as women are traditionally responsible for gathering fuel wood on a daily basis. Despite the fact that Niger has a refinery and the production represents, 798 ktoe in 2018, it’s depending on imports to cover its energy needs, particularly for gasoline, diesel and petroleum products, which are imported from Persian Gulf countries and Nigeria.
Mauritania also relies on petroleum products which supply 68% to generate electricity according to AFREC’s energy balance 2020. The second source of electricity generation is hydro power that takes up to 28% and solar 4% of the total electricity generated to meet the country’s commercial energy needs. The main petroleum fuel product is diesel oil, following by fuel oil and LPG (liquefied petroleum gas). Total primary energy supply in 2018 was 1760 ktoe. In general, Mauritania offers a broad variety of biomass resources. Formerly, crop waste (rice husk, rice straw, etc.) were produced annually and offered an energy potential of about 3.7 GWh.
According to AFREC’s energy efficiency indicator for residential sector 2019, the rate of electrification rate in Mali have rised to slightly above 42% that can be attributed to the governments focus on mini-grid solutions. The energy demand in Mali is dominated by the residential sector. This consumption is itself dominated by wood and charcoal for cooking. Biomass accounts for nearly 64% of the total final consumption. The pervasive use of biomass for domestic purposes is a contributor to deforestation and respiratory illness in Mali.
The challenge for Mali is to meet its growing energy demand with affordable, reliable, domestic and imported energy supplies. Total primary energy supply in 2018 was 5,553 ktoe. Opportunities also exist to develop the capacity of sustainable biomass and biofuels uses, given the strong agricultural base of the economy. In particular, opportunities to scale up biofuels projects, diversifying Jatropha uses for household electrification and to power productive uses for agricultural businesses in rural areas (such as grinders and de-huskers) could be explored further. A specific atlas to estimate the potential of agricultural residues that can be developed for energy generation is under finalization.
AFREC’s energy balance 2020 show that, the total primary energy supply of Liberia was 1636 ktoe. The current energy situation in Liberia is characterized by a dominance of traditional biomass consumption and low access to poor quality and relatively expensive electricity. This is due to the underdeveloped economy, whose infrastructure was extensively destroyed during the 14 years of civil crisis. As in many Sub-Saharan African countries, woody biomass is the primary energy source for domestic cooking and heating. In 2004, it was estimated that over 95% of the population relied on firewood, charcoal, and palm oil for their energy needs, and in 2018, the proportion had remained much the same. Electricity and petroleum products are mainly used for industry, households and transportation. Kerosene, electricity, and liquefied petroleum gas are used for lighting, cooking, and entertainment by higher income households in urban areas.
Energy use in Guinea-Bissau is roughly 0.3 toe per person per year, and is one of the world's lowest. The biomass represents over 95% of the total energy consumed by households in Guinea Bissau. Wood is the dominant fuel with a demand that exceeds 500,000 tons per year, followed by charcoal being the most-used fuel in the capital. The quantity of the biomass used is around 738,000 tons. Guinea-Bissau does not have any indigenous sources of oil, coal, natural gas or hydropower. Therefore, all petroleum products are imported, charging the country's economy with high expenses. According to the energy balance of 2007, the consumption of petroleum products is mainly dominated by the transport sector (40.614 ktoe), followed by electricity production (0.946 ktoe) and the residential sector (0.240 ktoe). Oil consumption and imports are about 0.438 ktoe per day. Total primary energy supply in 2008 was 219 ktoe of which biomass represented 49% while oil 51%. Biomass: The forest areas of Guinea-Bissau are estimated at two million hectares. The available biomass resource is roughly 48.3 million m3. The annual consumption of wood for energy purposes is estimated at 625,000 m3 and leads to a significant reduction of existing forest areas. The available biomass potential from agricultural products, wood processing residues and livestock manure is about 67,000 m3 per year. In terms of biofuels production, there is a potential of roughly 10,000 m3 from cashew, and about 20 hectares of Jatropha plantations.
AFREC’s 2020 energy balance showed that the total generation of electricity up to 2018 in Guinea-Bissau has been heavily reliant on Thermal. However, from 2014 a Guinea-Bissau began recording electricity production based on renewable sources. The total generation of electricity in 2018 was 179GWh with fossil thermal taking 98% of this share.
The biomass represents over 84% followed by oil products that takes 15% and electricity at only 1% of the total fuel shares of the total final consumption. Wood is the dominant fuel with a demand that exceeds 1,400 kt per year, followed by charcoal being the most-used fuel in the capital. Guinea-Bissau does not have any significant indigenous sources of oil, coal, natural gas or hydropower. Therefore, all petroleum products are imported, charging the country’s economy with high expenses. According to the energy balance of 2018, the consumption of electricity is mainly dominated by the household sector (61%) followed by the industry sector (29%). Total primary energy supply in 2018 was 543.74ktoe.
According to AFREC 2020 energy balance, the main primary energy sources that make up the energy mix in Guinea are biomass, and oil while electricity is mainly generated from hydro-electricity sources and fossil thermal sources. With 77% biomass (mostly charcoal) has the largest contribution in primary energy consumption in Guinea. More than 84% of households have access to biomass. All petroleum products consumed in Guinea are imported. Guinea also imports small quantities of LPG; its relatively high price can only be afforded by the wealthiest of buyers.
The mining industry is the most energy consuming sector in Guinea, as it consumes a majority of the hydrocarbon imports. The industrial sector is the largest electricity consumer, with a share of 48% of national consumption. Other sectors, like household and communication and public sectors, amount to about 46% and 6% respectively of electricity available. The total primary energy supply in 2018 was 5,028ktoe. Despite the high predominance of fuel woods (wood and charcoal) in the energy balance of the country, its actual potential remains unknown.
The electrification rates have steadily increased over the past 10 years, reaching more than 75% in 2018 as indicated in AFREC 2019 energy efficiency indicators for residential. Petroleum accounts for 50% of total final consumption and is followed by biofuels and waste at 36%. Total primary energy supply in 2018 was 9369 ktoe. Rural households depend on wood (charcoal, firewood and crop/sawmill residue) for cooking, whilst the urban households rely primarily on charcoal.
AFREC 2020 energy balance shows that the total final consumption (TFC) in the country is dominated by oil products and represent 50% followed by biofuels & waste and electricity respectively 36% and 13%, natural gas represent 1%.
The major source of energy for the whole country is fuel wood, which is extracted from the country’s forest resources, followed by petroleum products, electricity and renewable energy. According to AFREC 2020 energy balance, approximately 82% of the biomass was used I the households followed by 18% in communication and public sectors. The total energy consumed in 2018 was 563 ktoe. The over-reliance of the city and major urban centers on fuel wood (firewood and charcoal) is destroying the country’s forest resources and natural vegetation cover at an alarming rate, causing general environmental degradation.
The Gambia is heavily dependent on imports to meet its petroleum requirements. These include Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) as a cooking fuel substitute, and diesel and heavy fuel oil for generating electricity. There is currently no domestic oil production, but companies are exploring potential deposits offshore. Total primary energy supply in 2018 was 645 ktoe. There are some limited activities in the field of biofuels, mainly produced from Jatropha. Several projects were initiated by the government in the 1980s to reduce the country’s dependence on fuel wood and charcoal. This included the promotion of improved cooking stoves using firewood or charcoal and groundnut shell briquettes.
Recently the Department of State for Petroleum, Energy and Mineral Resources (DoSPEMR) participated in the promotion of biogas through the Peri-Urban Project for Agriculture. Within this, 20 biogas digesters in rural and peri-urban areas were implemented. At least two of these sites are running satisfactorily. In addition, Naanovo Energy Gambia Ltd., a subsidiary of the American Naanovo Energy, has signed a 25-year PPA with NAWEC for a 14 MW waste-to-energy plant in the country. In addition, Electronic Solar, an Italian firm, has expressed interest in a combined waste and miscanthus gas project, totaling 10 MW.
Central African Republic
Historically, wood has been the main fuel to provide heating. The current energy mix consists of hydro-electric and thermal. Some diesel power and solar photovoltaic panels are also used. Total primary energy supply (2018) was 1,092 ktoe. Biomass: Traditional biomass use for heating and lighting is still prevalent. According to AFREC 2020 statistics, the biomass intensity of the Central African Republic is currently sustainable. No studies have been conducted as to possible biomass uptake in the country. The total final consumption (TFC) in 2018 showed that, biofuel & waste represent 91% followed by oil product and electricity respectively 8% and 1%.
The energy sector is characterized by a dependence on imported petroleum fuels and a large demand for biomass energy resources, the consumption of which creates an excessive pressure over the limited forest reserves, the soils, and the ecosystem. Cape Verde does not have any fossil fuel resources, but consistent (and still mostly unexploited) renewable energy resources.
Due to the strategic position of the country’s ports and airports, approximately half of the fuel imported to Cape Verde is re-exported. The energy balance shows a high dependency on imported fossil fuels418 ktoe. Indigenous energy resources consist essentially of biomass, as wind energy production is limited. There are no petroleum refineries on the islands, only storage facilities. The overall fuel demand of Cape Verde includes diesel, gasoline, kerosene for cooking, LPG, lubricants, marine diesel and Jet A1 fuel. Diesel and LPG are the most important in terms of oil product consumption. The major consumption of LPG is due to the country’s lack of biomass and fossil resources (particularly firewood and coal. This is a problem for households, especially in rural areas, with the urgent need for biomass energy for cooking purposes. Also, due to existing climatic conditions, the status and future potential of biomass energy in the country is very low.
Wind and solar represent 14% in the total energy production in the country. In the total final consumption (TFC), Oil product represent 65% followed by biofuel and electricity respectively 18% and 17%.
The majority of the population (about 81%) still relies on wood energy (firewood and charcoal). In rural areas nearly all energy consumed is biomass based. Hence the national average is a consumption of 0.69 kg of firewood per person per day. This ratio can rise in some areas up to more than 1 kg, e.g. if there is no incentive to save fuel or if moisture in the woodfuel reduces the efficiency hence causing a higher woodfuel consumption.
Despite the population growth, there are no real woodfuel shortages felt in most parts of the country at this point in time. Rural families can pick firewood on their way back from the fields without the need of specific wood collection trips towards far away forests. Total primary energy supply in 2018 was 6071.68 ktoe of which biomass 76% and petroleum products 24%. Biomass: In many provinces of Burkina Faso, especially in the Sudano-Sahelian and Sudanian Zone, sufficient biomass resources are available. The production of biomass resources is particularly substantial in the forest areas of the East, West and Southwest.
Benin is reliant on electricity imports for a significant share of its energy supply. Reform programmes, including plans for electrification, have been put in place in the country, where only slightly above 40% of the population had access to electricity in 2017.
As with many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, Benin's energy sector is dominated by the use of biomass-based energy sources. Traditional fuels such as firewood and charcoal are the most frequently used. Around 97% of rural households rely on firewood for cooking. The unsustainable use of biomass in Benin has contributed to a serious decline in forest cover. Households are responsible for the majority of the total energy consumption, with a total of approximately 83% in AFREC 2020 statistics.
Benin has several crude oil reserves that are officially subdivided into 17 blocks. Seven blocks have already been granted to companies who are currently actively exploring existing resources. From 1982 to 1998, Benin has exploited a small offshore oil field. The cumulated production was estimated as 22 million barrels of crude oil. Potential reserves are assessed at more than 5 billion barrels of crude oil and more than 91 billion Mcm of natural gas. Therefore, several multinational oil companies are investigating sites of local reserves and their availability. Total primary energy supply in 2018 was 5,351 ktoe of which biofuels & waste 54% and oil 46%.
The total primary energy supply showed to AFREC’s energy balance 2020 publication was recorded at 8,894 ktoe while the total final consumption was recorded at 7,758 ktoe. Of the final consumption, biomass contributed a significant amount of up to 72%. This was the followed by oil products at 17%, electricity at 9% and coal at 2%. The major sources of electricity generation are fossil thermal and hydropower. Although solar/wind and biofuels and waste are also considerably used. The biomass in Zimbabwe was mostly used in the household sector at 81% and commerce and public sector at 19%. Electricity in Zimbabwe is mostly used in the Industry sector at 43%, household at 29%, commerce and public sector at 22% and agriculture/forestry at 6% of the total electricity available in the country. There is no oil refinery. As a result all refined petroleum products, including gasoline are imported.
AFREC’s energy balance 2020 show that biomass was the dominant energy resource especially in the rural areas accounting for about 65% of total final consumption. The total primary energy supply was recorded at 10,599 ktoe that was contributed to energy sources such as coal, oil, geothermal and hydropower. Currently, biomass energy resources include organic wastes, natural forests and energy crops. In the rural areas, biomass is consumed as household energy. Wood fuel was consumed in the form of firewood in rural areas while in urban areas it is consumed in form of charcoal. Most of the electricity is generated from hydropower. Other sources include fossil power and additionally solar/wind. Biomass dominates the share of total final consumption at 65% followed by oil products at 16%, electricity at 15% and coal at 4%.
South is the only country in Africa reporting use of nuclear energy in its energy mix. However, a larger share of its electricity is generated from fossil thermal. Other sources include hydropower and biofuels and waste. South Africa has tremendous biofuels potential when considering the capacity to grow total plant biomass (all lignocelluloses plant biomass),according to conservative estimates.
AFREC’s energy balance 2020 show that the total primary energy supply was 131,804 ktoe. Potential energy sources include agricultural residues such as bagasse and cuttings from forestry operations, as well as dedicated energy crops (Jatropha, switch grass, triticale etc.). Household biogas digesters also have a large potential market share, and two landfill gas projects have recently been commissioned near Durban. The total final consumption is dominated by oil products and represent 40%, followed by electricity 20%, coal 20%, biofuel and waste 7% and finally by natural gas 5%.
AFREC’s energy balance 2020 show that, Namibia’s electricity is mostly generated from hydropower that takes up 93% of the total electricity generated. Other sources include fossil thermal and solar/wind at 4% and 3% respectively. Namibia has one of the largest uranium resource not only in Africa but also in the world. Recently, the government has shown interest in adding nuclear energy into its energy mix to join countries like South Africa.
Biomass production resources are low due to Kalahari Desert covering large areas of Namibia. Biomass use in the country is generally confined to traditional rural household usage. The country does not have any indigenous sources of oil, coal or natural gas. There is no oil refinery and as a result, all refined petroleum products are imported represent 1,514 ktoe.
The Lesotho energy sector is characterized by a low level of energy consumed from commercial sources (electricity, petroleum, coal and gas) with a high level of consumption of energy from biomass sources. According to AFREC’s energy balance 2020, most of the electricity is consumed in the households at 35% and industry at 31% of the total electricity consumed in Lesotho. Like most countries in sub-Sahara Africa, Lesotho’s fuel share of total final consumption is dominated by biofuels and waste at 57% followed by oil, 26%, electricity at 7% and coal at 7%. The energy balance is dominated by biomass energy resources, which is closely associated with environmental degradation in the form of deforestation and soil erosion, a phenomenon likely to continue until renewable energy technology becomes economically viable in the country.
The country energy profile is characterized by a predominance of traditional biomass energy to meet the energy needs of rural households and a heavy dependence on imported petroleum for the modern economic sector needs. As a result, the country faces challenges related to unsustainable use of traditional forms of biomass and exposure to high and unstable oil import prices. Rural households meet their energy requirements mostly from biomass energy sources (wood, shrubs, crop wastes and dung) supplemented by paraffin. Urban households use mostly paraffin supplemented by biomass, gas and coal in specific areas. The residential sector consumes more than 90% of the country’s total biofuels and waste consumption.
The total primary energy supply in 2018 was 1,499ktoe of which combustible Renewables and waste 49%, petroleum products 37%, coal 2% and electricity 12%. Most of the biomass, especially wood fuel, was used in the industry sector accounting to about 55% of total consumption. Biomass is not only the major fuel in households, but also the major source of electricity self-generation in the sugar, pulp and saw mill industries. Over the last ten years, an increasing population has placed a high burden on the country's indigenous woodlands and forests, and in certain areas, biomass resources have been coming under pressure.
More and more woodland is being cleared for agricultural production and the grazing of cattle, while at the same time the demand for wood fuel is not decreasing. Such localized shortages are having an increasingly negative impact on communities in these areas. Households have to travel further and further to collect wood fuel. This has an immediate impact on the women and children of the households who are frequently responsible for the collection of firewood. This deforestation is also impacting heavily on the environment, with increasing desertification and soil erosion.
The energy production in Botwana has been consistently been supplied by coal, oil and biomass. These sources have been almost been produced in equal shares since 2000. Biomass has the highest share of TFC at 45% and is closely followed by oil at 42%. Botwana is one of the countries in Africa that have the largest share of biomass consumption in the household sector of up to 92%. Electricity is consumed mostly in the industry sector at 33% which is then followed by communication and public services at 27% and the household sector closes the top 3 list of sector at 30%.
Botswana has an estimated 212.8 Billion metric tonnes of coal reserves found in various locations, although only the reserves at Morupule are being mined for electricity generation. Electricity generation has been dominated by overdependence on coal as a primary source of energy largely because of its abundance and alleged cost-effectiveness. Most electric power is generated thermally in installations run by the Botswana Power Corporation (BPC), a public enterprise established in 1970. It is government owned monopoly with vertical integration supplies most electricity in the country especially in urban areas. In the remainder of the country diesel generators are estimated to supply over 20 MW of energy to villages, rural schools, hospitals, police stations and prisons.
LPG is steadily gaining in popularity in the low-income households because of convenience, and because of localized scarcity of wood fuel. Total installed electricity capacity (2006) 0.13 GW from thermal generation (100% coal). In 2008, 80% of Botswana's electricity is imported from South Africa's Eskom, otherwise Zambia and Zimbabwe. All of Botswana's refined oil needs are supplied by South Africa, except for a small supply to the western part of the country by Namibia.
AFREC’s energy balance 2020 show that the total primary energy supply in Tunisia was 10,590 ktoe. Although Tunisia disposes of significant biomass resources, energetic use of biomass is today mainly seen for cooking purposes in rural areas and some industries. In 2018, the country produced 1,990kt of crude oil. And exported 868kt of the crude oil. On the other hand, Tunisia produced 2,395 Mcm of natural gas and proceeded to import 3,980Mcm into the country.
The largest share of total final consumption was dominated by oil products at 50%. This was followed by natural gas at 20%, electricity at 12% and biofuel and waste at 12%. Most of the natural gas are used in the industry sector at 58% and the rest is mostly used in the households at 16%, commerce and public sector at 12%, transport at 12% and agriculture 2%.
AFREC’s energy balance 2020 show that, the total primary energy supply of Sudan was 19,172 ktoe. Electricity in Sudan is mostly generated from hydropower and fossil thermal. Household is the major energy consumer in Sudan and biomass as a source of energy contributes to 52% of the total final consumption. This is then followed by oil products at 38% and electricity at 10%. The largest sector that consumes biomass is the household sector at 88% followed by commerce and public sector at 9% and industry sector at 3%. Most of the electricity generated in Sudan is used in the household sector at 55%, commerce and public sector at 21%, industry at 13% and agriculture/forestry at 7%.
Fuel wood, animal wastes, agricultural crop residues, and logging wastes have been used through direct burning in Sudan for many years. However, most of forests and green cover of Sudan are concentrated in its southern region. With the cessation of Southern Sudan to a new state in 2011, Sudan lost 70% of its green cover and it becomes mostly as a semi-desert country. Oil plays a vital role in the economies of both countries. The country is largely self-sufficient and able to export refined as well as crude petroleum products.
South Sudan gained independence from Sudan in July 2011. Most of the oil production, as well as forest cover, are now possessed by South Sudan leaving little to the old Sudan, but the country is landlocked and remains dependent on Sudan because it must use Sudan's export pipelines and processing facilities. In early 2012, South Sudan voluntarily shut in all of its oil production because of a dispute with Sudan over oil transit fees. Biomass resources are forests, animal wastes, agricultural residues and sugar cane in South Sudan. The total forests area is estimated to be 75 million hectare in South Sudan Biomass and sugar cane have not yet used for electricity generation. Animal waste in the form of dung is estimated to be 4.5 million tons per year in South Sudan. However, animal waste has not yet used for biogas (Methane) production. Biogas can be used for lighting in the South Sudanese households. Oil plays a vital role in the economies of both countries.
According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), oil represented around 57 percent of Sudan's total government revenue and around 78 percent of export earnings in 2011, while it represented around 98 percent of total government revenues for South Sudan in 2011. The IMF projected that Sudan's oil earnings substantially declined following the South's secession. According to IMF estimates, oil accounted for 32 percent of total export earnings and 30 percent of Sudan's total government revenue in 2012. Fuel-wood and charcoal are the conventional sources of energy for most people in South Sudan. Estimates on the contribution of oil and gas to South Sudan energy consumption mix were not readily available as of July 2012. The total primary energy supply of the formerly united Sudan in 2018 (AFREC’s energy balance 2020) was 860 ktoe.
AFREC’s energy balance 2020 show that, the total primary energy supply in 2018 was 17799ktoe. The traditional energy sources (wood, charcoal and plant waste) are used extensively, especially in rural areas, but they do appear in the national energy balance with the part of 8%. The sources of electricity generation is mainly from fossil thermal. However, from Morocco has lately been diversifying it energy mix to considerably include solar/wind renewable energy sources apart from hydro power that also contributes to electricity generation.
Libya has virtually no rivers or forest cover and consists to more than 90% of desert or semi-desert. Libyan climate ranges from Mediterranean along the coast line to extremely dry in the interior south. Its potential of biomass is limited and the resources are small which can only be used on an individual level as an energy source. It is not suitable to produce energy. Despite its wealthy oil and gas reserves, according to AFREC’s energy balance 2020, Libya imports certain oil products (13,058 ktoe) such as gasoline due to its outdated refining sector. However, Libya is a net exporter of energy sources by a vast margin. Total crude oil produced in 2018 was 52,846 kt, and exported 46,805 kt in the same year. Natural gas exports in the same period were 3,888 ktoe. With the country holding the largest crude oil reserves in Africa, the domestic oil market is likely to remain export-focused for the foreseeable future. The total primary energy supply in 2018 was 21,057ktoe.
Egypt is in the top 5 crude oil producers and importers in Africa. In AFREC’s 2020 statistics shows that Egypt produced up to 30,146 ktoe of crude oil and imported 6,671 ktoe of crude oil. Egypt is also in the third position of natural gas producers in Africa producing up to 44,239 Million of cubic meter (Mcm) of natural gas and exporting only 14,621 Mcm. The largest share of renewable energy was produced from hydro-electricity sources. Most of the electricity was consumed in household sector followed closely by the industry and communication and public sectors at 42%, 27% and 26% respectively. Natural gas was mostly used in the industry and for non-energy use at 45% and 35% respectively.
Algeria is a country at the Mediterranean coast in northern Africa. The land has a total area of 2,381,740 km² (919,594 mi²) and a total coastline of 998 km (620.1 mi). This land area is approximately 342% of the area of Texas. Algeria is thus the largest country in Africa and the tenth largest country in the world. A considerable share of the inhabitants (74%) belongs to the urban population.
Biomass (wood fuel and charcoal) is the major energy source in Nigeria and 95% this biomass was used in the households according to AFREC’s statistics 2018. Biofuels and waste took a considerable share in the total final consumption of the country taking up to 88%. Most of the electricity is generated from Fossil thermal (62%). The rest is mainly generated from hydropower. The electricity generated is mostly used in the households at 57% and industry sector at 16%. In 2018, Nigeria topped the list of countries in Africa that produced crude oil. In this year, Nigeria produced 98,528 kt of crude oil. However, Nigeria is also tops the list of crude oil exporters in Africa in 2018 where they exported up to 93,242 kt of crude oil. This implies that Nigeria exported up to 94.6% of its crude oil. Nigeria's refining capacity is currently insufficient to meet domestic demand, requiring the country to import petroleum products.
Kenya’s electrification rates have been increasing over the past years reaching up to 63% (AFREC’s energy efficiency indicator for residential sector 2019) and becoming one of the highest in Eastern Africa.